Pathogens Hijack Host Cell Metabolism: Intracellular Infection as a Driver of the Warburg Effect in Cancer and Other Chronic Inflammatory Conditions Amy D. Proal and Michael B. VanElzakker, 2021 This hypothesis piece discusses metabolic shift in a broad range of chronic conditions, but as it may well be relevant to ME, I thought it might be okay to post it here. https://ij.hapres.com/htmls/IJ_1341_Detail.html "The Warburg effect refers to a metabolic state in which cells preferentially use aerobic glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP and macromolecules. A number of chronic inflammatory conditions are characterized by host cells that adopt a sustained, pathological Warburg-like metabolism. In cancer, previously healthy cells shift into a Warburg state centered on rapid energy production and increased cell proliferation that drives tumor formation... The question of why host cells in patients with cancer and other chronic inflammatory conditions adapt a pathological Warburg-like metabolism is a matter of debate. This review/hypothesis piece explores how intracellular infection can contribute to this Warburg metabolism or related pathological metabolic states. We detail molecular mechanisms by which viral, bacterial, and protozoan intracellular pathogens can induce, or contribute to, a Warburg-like metabolism in infected host cells in order to meet their own replication and nutritional needs..."