The latest update from OMF, about 9 minutes long. Summary: Their interest is T lymphocytes, which are prime movers of the immune system and come in several different flavours. They have been studying them for 35 years. Have seen evidence of major T cell activity in the blood of ME/CFS patients compared to healthy controls, in the form of clonal expansion. Genes are rearranged to create unique sequences for each cloned cell, and the sequence in the chromosome becomes protein which is used for immune response. There are billions of combinations. In the absence of an immunological challenge, you don't see the same clones replicating repeatedly, but this is what they are seeing in ME/CFS, and also other autoimmune diseases like MS. It means there is a whole set of T cells that is reacting to something in the patients. They hope it might be a pathogen. If sequences of specific cells are expanding in this clonal way, then you know something's up, and if you can track back this response, you have a chance of figuring out what is causing it. If the cause is a self-antigen, maybe a neurological antigen, then it would mean an autoimmune disease. Since we don't all get autoimmune disease, the assumption is that there is something that triggers it when it occurs, eg, something genetic or environmental. One potential is that the T cells see not only a pathogen but that cross-reactivity causes self-antigen reactivity too. They have some candidates for a self-antigen but need a lot more work to see what is going on. They are hopeful, and think they are on the right track. The art, or the trick, is in sifting the data, and they will keep at it.