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Influenza vaccination reveals sex dimorphic imprints of prior mild COVID-19, 2023, Sparks et al

Discussion in 'Epidemics (including Covid-19, not Long Covid)' started by SNT Gatchaman, Mar 28, 2023.

  1. SNT Gatchaman

    SNT Gatchaman Senior Member (Voting Rights)

    Aotearoa New Zealand
    Influenza vaccination reveals sex dimorphic imprints of prior mild COVID-19
    Sparks R, Lau WW, Liu C, Han KL, Vrindten KL, Sun G, Cox M, Andrews SF, Bansal N, Failla LE, Manischewitz J, Grubbs G, King LR, Koroleva G, Leimenstoll S, Snow L; OP11 Clinical Staff; Chen J, Tang J, Mukherjee A, Sellers BA, Apps R, McDermott AB, Martins AJ, Bloch EM, Golding H, Khurana S, Tsang JS

    Acute viral infections can have durable functional impacts on the immune system long after recovery, but how they affect homeostatic immune states and responses to future perturbations remain poorly understood.

    Here we use systems immunology approaches, including longitudinal multimodal single-cell analysis (surface proteins, transcriptome and V(D)J sequences) to comparatively assess baseline immune statuses and responses to influenza vaccination in 33 healthy individuals after recovery from mild, non-hospitalized COVID-19 (mean, 151 days after diagnosis) and 40 age- and sex-matched control individuals who had never had COVID-19.

    At the baseline and independent of time after COVID-19, recoverees had elevated T cell activation signatures and lower expression of innate immune genes including Toll-like receptors in monocytes. Male individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 had coordinately higher innate, influenza-specific plasmablast, and antibody responses after vaccination compared with healthy male individuals and female individuals who had recovered from COVID-19, in part because male recoverees had monocytes with higher IL-15 responses early after vaccination coupled with elevated prevaccination frequencies of 'virtual memory'-like CD8+ T cells poised to produce more IFN╬│ after IL-15 stimulation.

    Moreover, the expression of the repressed innate immune genes in monocytes increased by day 1 to day 28 after vaccination in recoverees, therefore moving towards the prevaccination baseline of the healthy control individuals. By contrast, these genes decreased on day 1 and returned to the baseline by day 28 in the control individuals.

    Our study reveals sex-dimorphic effects of previous mild COVID-19 and suggests that viral infections in humans can establish new immunological set-points that affect future immune responses in an antigen-agnostic manner.

    PubMed | Link | PDF (Nature)

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