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Serum Level of Anti-Nucleocapsid, but Not Anti-Spike Antibody, Is Associated with Improvement of Long COVID Symptoms, 2022, Varnai et al

Discussion in 'Long Covid research' started by Wyva, Feb 1, 2022.

  1. Wyva

    Wyva Senior Member (Voting Rights)

    Messages:
    834
    Location:
    Hungary
    Abstract

    Background: Long COVID is a condition characterized by long-term sequelae persisting after the typical convalescence period of COVID-19. Previous reports have suggested the role of an unsatisfactory immune response and impaired viral clearance in the pathogenesis of long COVID syndrome. We focused on potential associations between post-vaccination changes of antibody titers and the severity of long COVID symptoms and factors influencing the state of remission observed in patients with long COVID after vaccination.

    Methods: The severity of long COVID symptoms and serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S-Ig) and nucleocapsid (NC-Ig) levels were assessed in 107 post-COVID subjects at two time points: at baseline, and 17–24 weeks later. Besides, vaccination status was also assessed. Symptoms were evaluated based on the Chalder fatigue scale (CFQ-11) and visual analogue scale (VAS).

    Results: Serum level of S-Ig and NC-Ig at baseline were significantly higher in the patients with non-severe fatigue than those with severe fatigue, and this difference remained significant at follow-up in the case of NC-Ig. NC-Ig level above median was as an independent predictor for complete remission at follow-up. The difference in NC-Ig levels in subgroup analyses (severe fatigue vs. non-severe fatigue; complete remission vs. incomplete remission or progression) was found to be significant only in patients who received vaccination.

    Conclusions: The immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid may play a more important role than the spike in the course of long-term COVID syndrome.

    Open access: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/10/2/165/htm
     
  2. Wyva

    Wyva Senior Member (Voting Rights)

    Messages:
    834
    Location:
    Hungary
    This is a new paper from the same Hungarian team who published this one last year: Severe Fatigue and Memory Impairment Are Associated with Lower Serum Level of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in pw Post-COVID (...), 2021, Molnar et al

    Again, they mention CFS:

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is frequently preceded by a viral infection [16], but the molecular mechanisms underlying these post-acute presentations have yet to be elucidated. Post-infectious sequelae have also been observed following infection by other coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV; the most common symptom is fatigue [17].

    Cytotoxic activity of NK and CD8+ T cells and NK phenotypes was significantly decreased in CFS patients, suggesting significant dysregulation of the immune system in CFS patients [18]. In patients with CFS, the CD8+ T cells had reduced mitochondrial membrane potential compared with those from healthy controls and CD8+ T cells had reduced glycolysis following activation [19]. These findings indicate that patients have impaired T cell metabolism.

    The T cell compartment was altered in CFS population, with increased proportions of effector memory CD8+ T cells and decreased proportions of terminally differentiated effector CD8+ T cells reflecting an altered immunological state caused by an ongoing or recent infection [20]. There is considerable evidence for dysfunction of the CD4+ and especially CD8+ T cells in chronic fatigue syndrome, and given the marked similarity to the symptoms of SARS-CoV-2-induced post COVID fatigue, the pathophysiological role of these T cells in long COVID also arises.​
     

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