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Rapalogs downmodulate intrinsic immunity and promote cell entry of SARS-CoV-2, 2022, Guoli Shi et al

Discussion in 'Epidemics (including Covid-19, not Long Covid)' started by Mij, Oct 25, 2022.

  1. Mij

    Mij Senior Member (Voting Rights)

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    Abstract

    SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised individuals is associated with prolonged virus shedding and evolution of viral variants. Rapamycin and its analogs (rapalogs, including everolimus, temsirolimus, and ridaforolimus) are FDA-approved as mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of human diseases, including cancer and autoimmunity.

    Rapalog use is commonly associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which has been traditionally explained by impaired adaptive immunity. Here, we show that exposure to rapalogs increases susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in tissue culture and in immunologically naive rodents by antagonizing the cell-intrinsic immune response.

    By identifying one rapalog (ridaforolimus) that is less potent in this regard, we demonstrate that rapalogs promote Spike-mediated entry into cells by triggering the degradation of antiviral proteins IFITM2 and IFITM3 via an endolysosomal remodeling program called microautophagy.

    Rapalogs that increase virus entry inhibit the mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of the transcription factor TFEB, which facilitates its nuclear translocation and triggers microautophagy.

    In rodent models of infection, injection of rapamycin prior to and after virus exposure resulted in elevated SARS-CoV-2 replication and exacerbated viral disease, while ridaforolimus had milder effects.

    Overall, our findings indicate that preexisting use of certain rapalogs may elevate host susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease by activating lysosome-mediated suppression of intrinsic immunity.

    https://www.jci.org/articles/view/160766
     
    RedFox likes this.
  2. Mij

    Mij Senior Member (Voting Rights)

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    6,661
    Perhaps it's not too surprising given that rapa is an immunosuppressant, but it raises questions about long-term use.
     
    RedFox and alktipping like this.

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