Every once in a while peptic ulcers are mentioned here as a parallel to ME/CFS. Peptic ulcers were seen as something caused by stress and/or bad dietary habits until the discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori in the stomach by two Australian doctors, Barry Marshall and Robin Warren. They faced a lot of skepticism and opposition in the beginning but eventually their discovery earned them a Nobel Prize in 2005. However, things really didn't go smoothly first. I have recently come across these two articles from 2005, the year they won the Nobel Prize and I think they are worth sharing. One, titled 23 years of the discovery of Helicobacter pylori: Is the debate over? is from a journal: The clinical community, however, met their findings, with skepticism and a lot of criticism and that's why it took quite a remarkable length of time for their discovery to become widely accepted. They had to just push it harder and harder with all experimental and clinical evidences. In 1985, for example, Marshall underwent gastric biopsy to put evidence that he didn't carry the bacterium, then deliberately infected himself to show that it in fact caused acute gastric illness. This 'self-help' experiment was published in the Medical Journal of Australia  to describe development of a mild illness over a course of 2 weeks, which included histologically proven gastritis. This extraordinary act of Marshall demonstrated extreme dedication and commitment to his research that generated one of the most radical and important impacts on the last 50 year's perception of gastroduodenal pathology. The other one is from the New York Times, titled Nobel Came After Years of Battling the System: When two Australian scientists set out in the early 1980's to prove that a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, caused stomach inflammation and ulcers, they met opposition from a medical-industrial complex entrenched in the belief that psychological stress was the cause. Opposition to their radical thesis came from doctors with vested interests in treating ulcers and other stomach disorders as well as from drug companies that had come up with Tagamet, which blocked production of gastric acid and was becoming the first drug with $1 billion annual sales. Ulcer surgery was lucrative for surgeons who removed large portions of the stomach from patients with life-threatening bleeding and chronic symptoms. Psychiatrists and psychologists treated ulcer patients for stress. The concept of curing ulcers with antibiotics seemed preposterous to doctors who had long been taught that the stomach was sterile and that no microbes could grow in the corrosive gastric juices.