N-acetylglucosamine inhibits inflammation and neurodegeneration markers in multiple sclerosis: a mechanistic trial, 2023, Demetriou et al

Discussion in ''Conditions related to ME/CFS' news and research' started by EndME, Sep 30, 2023.

  1. EndME

    EndME Senior Member (Voting Rights)

    N-acetylglucosamine inhibits inflammation and neurodegeneration markers in multiple sclerosis: a mechanistic trial


    In the demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic-active brain inflammation, remyelination failure and neurodegeneration remain major issues despite immunotherapy. While B cell depletion and blockade/sequestration of T and B cells potently reduces episodic relapses, they act peripherally to allow persistence of chronic-active brain inflammation and progressive neurological dysfunction. N-acetyglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a triple modulator of inflammation, myelination and neurodegeneration. GlcNAc promotes biosynthesis of Asn (N)-linked-glycans, which interact with galectins to co-regulate the clustering/signaling/endocytosis of multiple glycoproteins simultaneously. In mice, GlcNAc crosses the blood brain barrier to raise N-glycan branching, suppress inflammatory demyelination by T and B cells and trigger stem/progenitor cell mediated myelin repair. MS clinical severity, demyelination lesion size and neurodegeneration inversely associate with a marker of endogenous GlcNAc, while in healthy humans, age-associated increases in endogenous GlcNAc promote T cell senescence.

    Objectives and methods
    An open label dose-escalation mechanistic trial of oral GlcNAc at 6 g (n = 18) and 12 g (n = 16) for 4 weeks was performed in MS patients on glatiramer acetate and not in relapse from March 2016 to December 2019 to assess changes in serum GlcNAc, lymphocyte N-glycosylation and inflammatory markers. Post-hoc analysis examined changes in serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) as well as neurological disability via the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS).

    Prior to GlcNAc therapy, high serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, IL-17 and IL-6 associated with reduced baseline levels of a marker of endogenous serum GlcNAc. Oral GlcNAc therapy was safe, raised serum levels and modulated N-glycan branching in lymphocytes. Glatiramer acetate reduces TH1, TH17 and B cell activity as well as sNfL, yet the addition of oral GlcNAc dose-dependently lowered serum IFNγ, IL-17, IL-6 and NfL. Oral GlcANc also dose-dependently reduced serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, which is increased in the brain of MS patients. 30% of treated patients displayed confirmed improvement in neurological disability, with an average EDSS score decrease of 0.52 points.

    Oral GlcNAc inhibits inflammation and neurodegeneration markers in MS patients despite concurrent immunomodulation by glatiramer acetate. Blinded studies are required to investigate GlcNAc’s potential to control residual brain inflammation, myelin repair and neurodegeneration in MS.

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