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Long-term perturbation of the peripheral immune system months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2022, Ryan et al

Discussion in 'Epidemics (including Covid-19)' started by Andy, Jan 15, 2022 at 1:25 PM.

  1. Andy

    Andy Committee Member (& Outreach when energy allows)

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    15,175
    Location:
    Hampshire, UK
    Background
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious respiratory virus which is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is increasingly clear that recovered individuals, even those who had mild COVID-19, can suffer from persistent symptoms for many months after infection, a condition referred to as “long COVID”, post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), post-acute COVID-19 syndrome, or post COVID-19 condition. However, despite the plethora of research on COVID-19, relatively little is known about the molecular underpinnings of these long-term effects.

    Methods
    We have undertaken an integrated analysis of immune responses in blood at a transcriptional, cellular, and serological level at 12, 16, and 24 weeks post-infection (wpi) in 69 patients recovering from mild, moderate, severe, or critical COVID-19 in comparison to healthy uninfected controls. Twenty-one of these patients were referred to a long COVID clinic and > 50% reported ongoing symptoms more than 6 months post-infection.

    Results
    Anti-Spike and anti-RBD IgG responses were largely stable up to 24 wpi and correlated with disease severity. Deep immunophenotyping revealed significant differences in multiple innate (NK cells, LD neutrophils, CXCR3+ monocytes) and adaptive immune populations (T helper, T follicular helper, and regulatory T cells) in convalescent individuals compared to healthy controls, which were most strongly evident at 12 and 16 wpi. RNA sequencing revealed significant perturbations to gene expression in COVID-19 convalescents until at least 6 months post-infection. We also uncovered significant differences in the transcriptome at 24 wpi of convalescents who were referred to a long COVID clinic compared to those who were not.

    Conclusions
    Variation in the rate of recovery from infection at a cellular and transcriptional level may explain the persistence of symptoms associated with long COVID in some individuals.

    Open access, https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-021-02228-6
     
  2. Grigor

    Grigor Senior Member (Voting Rights)

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