Increased levels of inflammatory molecules in blood of Long COVID patients point to thrombotic endotheliitis Pretorius et al 2022

Discussion in 'Long Covid research' started by John Mac, Oct 19, 2022.

  1. John Mac

    John Mac Senior Member (Voting Rights)


    News article on the study
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  2. RedFox

    RedFox Senior Member (Voting Rights)

    In this preprint, Dr. Pretorius and her colleagues found yet more signs of excessive clotting in people with Long Covid. In the past, the found the microclots. Now they're showing increases in molecules associated with clotting as well. These findings are encouraging, as it shows something's wrong with the bodies of people with long Covid, but there's still no evidence that the clots are the cause of the symptoms.
  3. Andy

    Andy Committee Member

    Hampshire, UK
    Now published

    Increased Levels of Inflammatory and Endothelial Biomarkers in Blood of Long COVID Patients Point to Thrombotic Endothelialitis

    The prevailing hypotheses for the persistent symptoms of Long COVID have been narrowed down to immune dysregulation and autoantibodies, widespread organ damage, viral persistence, and fibrinaloid microclots (entrapping numerous inflammatory molecules) together with platelet hyperactivation. Here we demonstrate significantly increased concentrations of von Willebrand factor (VWF), platelet factor 4 (PF4), serum amyloid A (SAA), α-2 antiplasmin (α-2AP), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (E-selectin), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) in the soluble part of the blood. It was noteworthy that the mean level of α-2 antiplasmin exceeded the upper limit of the laboratory reference range in Long COVID patients, and the other 5 were significantly elevated in Long COVID patients as compared to the controls. This is alarming if we take into consideration that a significant amount of the total burden of these inflammatory molecules has previously been shown to be entrapped inside fibrinolysis-resistant microclots (thus decreasing the apparent level of the soluble molecules). We conclude that presence of microclotting, together with relatively high levels of six biomarkers known to be key drivers of endothelial and clotting pathology, points to thrombotic endothelialitis as a key pathological process in Long COVID.

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