In-depth virological and immunological characterization of HIV-1 cure after CCR5Δ32/Δ32 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 2023

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  1. SNT Gatchaman

    SNT Gatchaman Senior Member (Voting Rights)

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    In-depth virological and immunological characterization of HIV-1 cure after CCR5Δ32/Δ32 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
    Jensen et al

    Despite scientific evidence originating from two patients published to date that CCR5Δ32/Δ32 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the knowledge of immunological and virological correlates of cure is limited.

    Here we characterize a case of long-term HIV-1 remission of a 53-year-old male who was carefully monitored for more than 9 years after allogeneic CCR5Δ32/Δ32 HSCT performed for acute myeloid leukemia. Despite sporadic traces of HIV-1 DNA detected by droplet digital PCR and in situ hybridization assays in peripheral T cell subsets and tissue-derived samples, repeated ex vivo quantitative and in vivo outgrowth assays in humanized mice did not reveal replication-competent virus. Low levels of immune activation and waning HIV-1-specific humoral and cellular immune responses indicated a lack of ongoing antigen production.

    Four years after analytical treatment interruption, the absence of a viral rebound and the lack of immunological correlates of HIV-1 antigen persistence are strong evidence for HIV-1 cure after CCR5Δ32/Δ32 HSCT.

    Link (Nature Medicine)
     

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