The connections between government and the insurance business in their joint project to reduce eligibility for sickness benefits. https://www.lwbooks.co.uk/sites/default/files/s36_04rutherford.pdf " In November 2001 a conference assembled at Woodstock, near Oxford. Its subject was ‘Malingering and Illness Deception’. The topic was a familiar one to the insurance industry, but it was now becoming a major political issue as New Labour committed itself to reducing the 2.6 million who were claiming Incapacity Benefit (IB). Amongst the 39 participants was Malcolm Wicks, then Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Work, and Mansel Aylward, his Chief Medical Officer at the Department of Work and Pensions (DWP). Fraud - which amounts to less than 0.4 per cent of IB claims - was not the issue. The experts and academics present were the theorists and ideologues of welfare to work. What linked many of them together, including Aylward, was their association with the giant US income protection company UnumProvident, represented at the conference by John LoCascio. The goal was the transformation of the welfare system. The cultural meaning of illness would be redefined; growing numbers of claimants would be declared capable of work and ‘motivated’ into jobs." "Two factors threatened future profits however. The first was falling interest rates, and the second was the growth in new kinds of ‘subjective illnesses’, for which diagnostic tests were disputable. The old industrial injuries were giving way to illnesses with no clear biological markers - Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), Fibromyalgia, Chronic Pain, Multiple Sclerosis, Lyme Disease. In the early 1990s the new kinds of claims began to rise just as interest rates fell: profits were threatened. Unum’s 1995 ‘Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Management Plan’ sounded the alarm: ’Unum stands to lose millions if we do not move quickly to address this increasing problem’." " The industry drew on the work of two of the Woodstock conference participants, Professor Simon Wessely of King’s College and Professor Michael Sharpe of Edinburgh University, in an attempt to reclassify ME/CFS as a psychiatric disorder." "Then in July 2004, it opened its £1.6m UnumProvident Centre for Psychosocial and Disability Research at Cardiff University. The company appointed Mansel Aylward as Director following his retirement from the DWP in April. Professor Peter Halligan, who had forged the partnership with UnumProvident, was ambitious: ‘Within the next five years, the work will hopefully facilitate a significant re-orientation in current medical practice in the UK’. " In a memorandum submitted to the House of Commons Select Committee on Work and Pensions, UnumProvident define their method of working: ‘Our extended experience ... has shown us that the correct model to apply when helping people to return to work is a bio-psychosocial one’. " George Osborne "Prime contractors, be they companies or charities, would be paid primarily if they get people back into work, and keep them there - in other words payment by results" " see also: Malingering and illness deception http://www.meactionuk.org.uk/Malingering_and_Illness_Deception.pdf eta: " List of Contributors Mansel Aylward Department for Work and Pensions, London, UK. Charles Baron Registered Specialist in Occupational Medicine, Mold, UK. Christopher Bass Department of Psychological Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. Richard Byrne Scottish Primate Research Group, School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, UK. Kenneth D. Craig Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.,Canada. Tom Farrow Academic Department of Psychiatry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. David Faust Department of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA. Richard S. J. Frackowiak Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, London, UK. Richard I. Frederick Department of Psychology, US Medical Center for Federal Prisoners, Springfield, Missouri, USA. Peter W. Halligan School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. Amy Herford Academic Department of Psychiatry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. Marilyn Hill Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada. Michael A. Jones Liverpool Law School, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. Richard Kitchen Department for Work and Pensions, Ladywood, Birmingham, UK. David Leung Academic Department of Psychiatry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. Judith A. Libow Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital and Research Center at Oakland, Oakland, CA, USA John LoCascio UNUM Provident Insurance Company, Portland, ME, USA. Chris J. Main Department of Behavioural Medicine, Hope Hospital, Salford Royal Hospital,NHS Trust, Salford, UK. Bertram F. Malle Institute of Cognitive and Decision Sciences and Department of Psychology,University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA. Samantha Mann Psychology Department, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK. George Mendelson Department of Psychological Medicine, Monash University, Australia. Craig Neumann Department of Psychology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA. David A. Oakley Department of Psychology, University College London, London, UK. Ian P. Palmer Royal Centre for Defence Medicine TD, Fort Blockhouse, Gasport, Hants, UK. Loren Pankratz Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland,OR, USA. Jon Poole Dudley Priority Health NHS Trust, Health Centre, Dudley, UK. Lindsay Prior Cardiff School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. Anna Rahman Academic Department of Psychiatry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. Adrian Raine Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,CA, USA. Becky Reilly Academic Department of Psychiatry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. W. Peter Robinson Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. Richard Rogers Department of Psychology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA. Samir Shah Academic Department of Psychiatry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. Michael Sharpe Division of Psychiatry, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK. Sean Spence Academic Department of Psychiatry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. Alan Sprince The Cayman Islands Law School, Grand Layman, B.W.I. Emma Stokes Scottish Primate Research Group, School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, UK. Aldert Vrij Psychology Department, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK. Nicholas S. Ward Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology,London, UK. Simon Wessely Department of Psychological Medicine, GKT School of Medicine and the Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK. Fiona Wood Cardiff School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. Matthew K. Wynia Institute for Ethics at the American Medical Association, Chicago, IL, USA. eta2: "We would also like to thank all those contributors at the Woodstock meeting who provided constructive comments and feedback on the presentations: Mrs Diana Brahams, Professor Derick Wade, Dr Peter White, Professor John C. Marshall, Professor Gordon Waddell, and Professor Richard Lewis."