Detection of ADCC-Supporting Antibodies by NK-92-CD16A Cell Externalization of CD107a: Recognition of Antibody Afucosylation and Assay Optimization

Discussion in 'Other health news and research' started by Sly Saint, May 27, 2023.

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  1. Sly Saint

    Sly Saint Senior Member (Voting Rights)

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    Abstract
    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by natural killer (NK) lymphocytes eliminates cells infected with viruses. Antiviral ADCC requires three components: 1) antibody; 2) effector lymphocytes with the Fc-IgG receptor CD16A; and 3) viral proteins in infected cell membranes. Fc-afucosylated antibodies bind with greater affinity to CD16A than fucosylated antibodies; individuals’ variation in afucosylation contributes to differences in ADCC.

    Current assays for afucosylated antibodies involve expensive methods. We report an improved bioassay for antibodies that support ADCC which encompasses afucosylation. This assay utilizes externalization of CD107a by NK-92-CD16A cells after antibody recognition. We used anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, GA101 WT or glycoengineered (GE), 10% or ~50% afucosylated, and CD20-positive Raji target cells. CD107a increased detection 7-fold compared to flow cytometry to detect Raji-bound antibodies. WT and GE antibody effective concentrations (EC50s) for CD107a externalization differed by 20-fold, with afucosylated GA101-GE more detectable. The EC50s for CD107a-externalization vs. 51Cr cell death were similar for NK-92 CD16A and blood NK cells. Notably, the %CD107a-positive cells negatively correlated with dead Raji cells and was nearly undetectable at high NK:Raji ratios required for cytotoxicity.

    This bioassay is very sensitive and adaptable to assess anti-viral antibodies but unsuitable as a surrogate assay to monitor cell death after ADCC.

    https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202305.1841/v1
     
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