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Class switch towards non-inflammatory, spike-specific IgG4 antibodies after repeated SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, 2022, Irrgang et al

Discussion in 'Epidemics (including Covid-19, not Long Covid)' started by SNT Gatchaman, Dec 27, 2022.

  1. SNT Gatchaman

    SNT Gatchaman Senior Member (Voting Rights)

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    Class switch towards non-inflammatory, spike-specific IgG4 antibodies after repeated SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination
    Pascal Irrgang, Juliane Gerling, Katharina Kocher, Dennis Lapuente, Philipp Steininger, Katharina Habenicht, Monika Wytopil, Stephanie Beileke, Simon Schäfer, Jahn Zhong, George Ssebyatika, Thomas Krey, Valeria Falcone, Christine Schülein, Antonia Sophia Peter, Krystelle Nganou-Makamdop, Hartmut Hengel, Jürgen Held, Christian Bogdan, Klaus Überla, Kilian Schober, Thomas H. Winkler, Matthias Tenbusch

    RNA vaccines are efficient preventive measures to combat the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. High levels of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2-antibodies are an important component of vaccine-induced immunity. Shortly after the initial two mRNA vaccine doses, the IgG response mainly consists of the pro-inflammatory subclasses IgG1 and IgG3.

    Here, we report that several months after the second vaccination, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were increasingly composed of non-inflammatory IgG4, which were further boosted by a third mRNA vaccination and/or SARS-CoV-2 variant breakthrough infections. IgG4 antibodies among all spike-specific IgG antibodies rose on average from 0.04% shortly after the second vaccination to 19.27% late after the third vaccination. This induction of IgG4 antibodies was not observed after homologous or heterologous SARS-CoV-2 vaccination with adenoviral vectors. Single-cell sequencing and flow cytometry revealed substantial frequencies of IgG4-switched B cells within the spike-binding memory B-cell population (median 14.4%; interquartile range (IQR) 6.7–18.1%) compared to the overall memory B-cell repertoire (median 1.3%; IQR 0.9–2.2%) after three immunizations.

    Importantly, this class switch was associated with a reduced capacity of the spike-specific antibodies to mediate antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis and complement deposition. Since Fc-mediated effector functions are critical for antiviral immunity, these findings may have consequences for the choice and timing of vaccination regimens using mRNA vaccines, including future booster immunizations against SARS-CoV-2.

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  2. SNT Gatchaman

    SNT Gatchaman Senior Member (Voting Rights)

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    (IgG1 and 3 are "good", IgG2 and 4 are "less good".)

     
  3. SNT Gatchaman

    SNT Gatchaman Senior Member (Voting Rights)

    Messages:
    4,400
    Location:
    Aotearoa New Zealand
  4. SNT Gatchaman

    SNT Gatchaman Senior Member (Voting Rights)

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    4,400
    Location:
    Aotearoa New Zealand
    Findings replicated in —

    Class switch towards spike protein-specific IgG4 antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination depends on prior infection history
    Kiszel, Petra; Sík, Pál; Miklós, János; Kajdácsi, Erika; Sinkovits, György; Cervenak, László; Prohászka, Zoltán

    Vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 reduce the risk of developing serious COVID-19 disease. Monitoring spike-specific IgG subclass levels after vaccinations may provide additional information on SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral immune response.

    Here, we examined the presence and levels of spike-specific IgG antibody subclasses in health-care coworkers vaccinated with vector(Sputnik, AstraZeneca) or mRNA-based (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna) vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and in unvaccinated COVID-19 patients.

    We found that vector-based vaccines elicited lower total spike-specific IgG levels than mRNA vaccines. The pattern of spike-specific IgG subclasses in individuals infected before mRNA vaccinations resembled that of vector-vaccinated subjects or unvaccinated COVID-19 patients. However, the pattern of mRNA-vaccinated individuals without SARS-CoV-2 preinfection showed a markedly different pattern. In addition to IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses presented in all groups, a switch towards distal IgG subclasses (spike-specific IgG4 and IgG2) appeared almost exclusively in individuals who received only mRNA vaccines or were infected after mRNA vaccinations. In these subjects, the magnitude of the spike-specific IgG4 response was comparable to that of the spike-specific IgG1 response.

    These data suggest that the priming of the immune system either by natural SARS-CoV-2 infection or by vector or mRNA-based vaccinations has an important impact on the characteristics of the developed specific humoral immunity.

    Link | PDF (Nature Scientific Reports)
     
    Peter Trewhitt likes this.

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