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Alterations in Kynurenine and NAD+ Salvage Pathways during the Successful Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Suggest..., 2021, Wnorowski et al

Discussion in 'Gastrointestinal and Urinary' started by Andy, Dec 28, 2021.

  1. Andy

    Andy Committee Member

    Hampshire, UK
    Full title: Alterations in Kynurenine and NAD+ Salvage Pathways during the Successful Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Suggest HCAR3 and NNMT as Potential Drug Targets


    A meta-analysis of publicly available transcriptomic datasets was performed to identify metabolic pathways profoundly implicated in the progression and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

    The analysis revealed that genes involved in tryptophan (Trp) metabolism are upregulated in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and return to baseline after successful treatment with infliximab. Microarray and mRNAseq profiles from multiple experiments confirmed that enzymes responsible for Trp degradation via the kynurenine pathway (IDO1, KYNU, IL4I1, KMO, and TDO2), receptor of Trp metabolites (HCAR3), and enzymes catalyzing NAD+ turnover (NAMPT, NNMT, PARP9, CD38) were synchronously coregulated in IBD, but not in intestinal malignancies. The modeling of Trp metabolite fluxes in IBD indicated that changes in gene expression shifted intestinal Trp metabolism from the synthesis of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT, serotonin) towards the kynurenine pathway. Based on pathway modeling, this manifested in a decline in mucosal Trp and elevated kynurenine (Kyn) levels, and fueled the production of downstream metabolites, including quinolinate, a substrate for de novo NAD+ synthesis. Interestingly, IBD-dependent alterations in Trp metabolites were normalized in infliximab responders, but not in non-responders. Transcriptomic reconstruction of the NAD+ pathway revealed an increased salvage biosynthesis and utilization of NAD+ in IBD, which normalized in patients successfully treated with infliximab. Treatment-related changes in NAD+ levels correlated with shifts in nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) expression. This enzyme helps to maintain a high level of NAD+-dependent proinflammatory signaling by removing excess inhibitory nicotinamide (Nam) from the system.

    Our analysis highlights the prevalent deregulation of kynurenine and NAD+ biosynthetic pathways in IBD and gives new impetus for conducting an in-depth examination of uncovered phenomena in clinical studies.

    Open access, https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/24/13497/htm

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