Full title: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonist Infliximab for Treatment-Resistant Depression Authors: Raison et al Date: 2012 link to article Five minute video explanation for dummies Not brand new research or anything, but kind of interesting - and relevant! These researchers took a group of people diagnosed with treatment-resistant depression and treated them with infliximab or placebo. Infliximab is a drug that blocks tumour necrosis factor, a pro-inflammatory cytokine. The study found no overall beenfit of treatment for the group as a whole. But for that subgroup of participants who had high(ish) C-reactive protein levels (indicating inflammation), treatment led to improvements on a self-report measure of depression. But don't go away thinking that (some) depression is caused by inflammation, nor the other way around. When you look closer at the results, it appears that a lot of the "responders" were probably not depressed according to the strict meaning of the term, but rather had impaired physical functioning more generally - most probably including fatigue. Most of the "improvement" on the depression measure was people reporting that they could do more work and other activities following the treatment. My conclusion: * Infliximab reduces overall markers of inflammation (include CRP and TNF) * People with high(ish) levels of inflammation benefit from infliximab * The only thing the article probably has to say about actual depression (the concept) is that our diagnostic criteria are most likely too broad, and many physically ill people get caught in the net.