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[Preprint] Para-infectious brain injury in COVID-19 persists at follow-up despite attenuated cytokine and autoantibody responses, 2023, Michael et al.

Discussion in 'Long Covid research' started by SNT Gatchaman, Apr 5, 2023.

  1. SNT Gatchaman

    SNT Gatchaman Senior Member (Voting Rights)

    Aotearoa New Zealand
    Para-infectious brain injury in COVID-19 persists at follow-up despite attenuated cytokine and autoantibody responses
    Benedict D. Michael; Cordelia Dunai; Edward J. Needham; Kukatharmini Tharmaratnam; Robyn Williams; Yun Huang; Sarah A. Boardman; Jordan Clark; Parul Sharma; Krishanthi Subramaniam; Greta K. Wood; Ceryce Collie; Richard Digby; Alexander Ren; Emma Norton; Maya Leibowitz; Soraya Ebrahimi; Andrew Fower; Hannah Fox; Esteban Tato; Mark Ellul; Geraint Sunderland; Marie Held; Claire Hetherington; Franklyn Nkongho; Alish Palmos; Alexander Grundmann; James P. Stewart; Michael Griffiths; Tom Solomon; Gerome Breen; Alasdair Coles; Jonathan Cavanagh; Sarosh R. Irani; Angela Vincent; Leonie Taams; David K. Menon

    We measured brain injury markers, inflammatory mediators, and autoantibodies in 203 participants with COVID-19; 111 provided acute sera (1-11 days post admission) and 56 with COVID-19-associated neurological diagnoses provided subacute/convalescent sera (6-76 weeks post-admission).

    Compared to 60 controls, brain injury biomarkers (Tau, GFAP, NfL, UCH-L1) were increased in acute sera, significantly more so for NfL and UCH-L1, in patients with altered consciousness. Tau and NfL remained elevated in convalescent sera, particularly following cerebrovascular and neuroinflammatory disorders. Acutely, inflammatory mediators (including IL-6, IL-12p40, HGF, M-CSF, CCL2, and IL-1RA) were higher in participants with altered consciousness, and correlated with brain injury biomarker levels. Inflammatory mediators were lower than acute levels in convalescent sera, but levels of CCL2, CCL7, IL-1RA, IL-2Rα, M-CSF, SCF, IL-16 and IL-18 in individual participants correlated with Tau levels even at this late time point.

    When compared to acute COVID-19 patients with a normal GCS, network analysis showed significantly altered immune responses in patients with acute alteration of consciousness, and in convalescent patients who had suffered an acute neurological complication. The frequency and range of autoantibodies did not associate with neurological disorders. However, autoantibodies against specific antigens were more frequent in patients with altered consciousness in the acute phase (including MYL7, UCH-L1, GRIN3B, and DDR2), and in patients with neurological complications in the convalescent phase (including MYL7, GNRHR, and HLA antigens).

    In a novel low-inoculum mouse model of SARS-CoV-2, while viral replication was only consistently seen in mouse lungs, inflammatory responses were seen in both brain and lungs, with significant increases in CCL4, IFNγ, IL-17A, and microglial reactivity in the brain.

    Neurological injury is common in the acute phase and persists late after COVID-19, and may be driven by a para-infectious process involving a dysregulated host response.

    Link | PDF (Preprint: MedRxiv)
    alktipping, Peter Trewhitt and RedFox like this.

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