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Post-acute sequelae and adaptive immune responses in people living with HIV recovering from SARS-COV-2 infection, 2022, Peluso, Michael et al

Discussion in 'Long Covid research' started by Mij, Jul 24, 2022.

  1. Mij

    Mij Senior Member (Voting Rights)

    Messages:
    6,274
    Abstract

    Background:
    Limited data are available on the long-term clinical and immunologic consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with HIV (PWH).

    Methods:
    We measured SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses in people with and without HIV recovering from COVID-19 (n = 39 and n = 43, respectively) using binding antibody, surrogate virus neutralization, intracellular cytokine staining, and inflammatory marker assays. We identified individuals experiencing post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) and evaluated immunologic parameters. We used linear regression and generalized linear models to examine differences by HIV status in the magnitude of inflammatory and virus-specific antibody and T cell responses, as well as differences in the prevalence of PASC.

    Results:
    Among PWH, we found broadly similar SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and T cell responses as compared with a well-matched group of HIV-negative individuals. PWH had 70% lower relative levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD8+ T cells (p = 0.007) and 53% higher relative levels of PD-1+ SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells (p = 0.007). Higher CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with lower PD-1 expression on SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells (0.34-fold effect, p = 0.02). HIV status was strongly associated with PASC (odds ratio 4.01, p = 0.008), and levels of certain inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IP-10) were associated with persistent symptoms.

    Conclusions:
    We identified potentially important differences in SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in PWH and HIV-negative participants that might have implications for long-term immunity conferred by natural infection. HIV status strongly predicted the presence of PASC. Larger and more detailed studies of PASC in PWH are urgently needed.

    https://journals.lww.com/aidsonline...equelae_and_adaptive_immune_responses.73.aspx
     
    livinglighter, Lisa108, Hutan and 2 others like this.
  2. Hutan

    Hutan Moderator Staff Member

    Messages:
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    Location:
    Aotearoa New Zealand
    University of San Francisco team. It's a shame it isn't open access - I would have thought with the level of public funding for HIV/AIDS research, and in the public good, it could have been.

    Based on the abstract:
    The odds ratio of 4 for people with HIV getting PASC is interesting, although it would be good to see what the persistent symptoms are. I wonder if anyone has heard or seen anecdotal evidence of Long Covid being more prevalent in people with HIV.

    We've seen some studies report inflammatory markers in Long Covid (IL-6 and TNFa have come up quite a bit), but then we have also seen some studies not finding inflammatory markers. It would be good to see a scattergraph of those markers in this study.

    This is true. Maybe some of the AIDS research budget can be used for this.

    @dave30th - perhaps you have some networks to get the message of possibly higher risk of Long Covid in people with HIV out, and to hear if this finding in a small sample seems to be being borne out?


    PD-1?
     
    Last edited: Jul 25, 2022
    livinglighter, Mij, Lisa108 and 3 others like this.
  3. Hutan

    Hutan Moderator Staff Member

    Messages:
    20,490
    Location:
    Aotearoa New Zealand
    PD-1

    Programmed Cell Death Protein 1–Positive CD8+ T Cells in Multiple Sclerosis
    Exhausted Fighters or Peacekeepers
    . Jul 2022

    It sounds complicated in MS: PD-1 might be present on t-cells in the central nervous system but not in the periphery.


    In-Depth Analysis of the Plasma Proteome in ME/CFS Exposes Disrupted Ephrin-Eph and Immune System Signalling 2021 Germain, Levine, Hanson


    EBV/HHV-6A dUTPases contribute to myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome pathophysiology by enhancing TFH cell differentiation and extrafollicular activities 2022, Cox et al
    This paper looks to be worth checking out in detail. I've just cut and pasted here - I'm not sure how crucial the ME/CFS serum was or if the studies were done with healthy serum as a control.
     
    livinglighter, Mij, Lisa108 and 3 others like this.

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