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Endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19: an overview of evidence, biomarkers, mechanisms and potential therapies, 2022, Suo-wen Xu

Discussion in 'Epidemics (including Covid-19, not Long Covid)' started by Mij, Oct 18, 2022.

  1. Mij

    Mij Senior Member (Voting Rights)


    The fight against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is still raging. However, the pathophysiology of acute and post-acute manifestations of COVID-19 (long COVID-19) is understudied. Endothelial cells are sentinels lining the innermost layer of blood vessel that gatekeep micro- and macro-vascular health by sensing pathogen/danger signals and secreting vasoactive molecules. SARS-CoV-2 infection primarily affects the pulmonary system, but accumulating evidence suggests that it also affects the pan-vasculature in the extrapulmonary systems by directly (via virus infection) or indirectly (via cytokine storm), causing endothelial dysfunction (endotheliitis, endothelialitis and endotheliopathy) and multi-organ injury.

    Mounting evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to multiple instances of endothelial dysfunction, including reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress, endothelial injury, glycocalyx/barrier disruption, hyperpermeability, inflammation/leukocyte adhesion, senescence, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), hypercoagulability, thrombosis and many others. Thus, COVID-19 is deemed as a (micro)vascular and endothelial disease. Of translational relevance, several candidate drugs which are endothelial protective have been shown to improve clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients.

    The purpose of this review is to provide a latest summary of biomarkers associated with endothelial cell activation in COVID-19 and offer mechanistic insights into the molecular basis of endothelial activation/dysfunction in macro- and micro-vasculature of COVID-19 patients. We envisage further development of cellular models and suitable animal models mimicking endothelial dysfunction aspect of COVID-19 being able to accelerate the discovery of new drugs targeting endothelial dysfunction in pan-vasculature from COVID-19 patients.

    Sean, Michelle, SNT Gatchaman and 4 others like this.

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